Global Hip-hop Diaspora

Hip-hop culture originated in the 70s on the streets of New York and south-central Los Angeles, and since has rapidly spread across the globe, expanding from traditional forms. Authentic hip-hop culture was a form of expression, communication and a way to raise awareness of cultural and societal issues. Early genres provided meaningful messages of political consciousness, inclusion, activism, equity, justice, education and success – however commercial hip-hop culture exposes modern manifestations of more negative stereotypes. There is now a stigma associated with hip-hop culture and stereotypes that are predominantly represented in music, gaming and television. The overwhelming repetitiveness of “gangsta-rap” music videos tend to glorify inappropriate behaviour, criminality, brutality, vulgar sexuality and misogyny. Commercial exploitation of hip-hop culture has reshuffled to this commonly presented “gangsta-rap” stereotype, is problematic for youth as they internalise these negative images of racialised ethnicities in the media (Pieters, 2007).

“Music, like identity is both performance and story, describes the social in the individual and the individual in the social. The mind in the body and the body in the mind; Identity, like music, is a matter of both ethics and aesthetics.” (Mitchell, 2007)

Western perceptions of hip-hop are that it is a culture that derived from a genre of music and the derogatory associations the media has portrayed. Hip-hop is in fact a powerful, ancient culture formed by many elements – it is a style, how one dresses, speaks, expresses and carries themselves. Despite all the positive aspects of hip-hop, the media chooses to focus primarily on the negative – seldom exploring the many positive influences that hip-hop culture has brought to the world.

I encourage you to watch (even just 30 seconds) of these two music videos that I feel explore the contrast between traditional and commercial hip-hop culture. As you watch each clip, consider the differences or similarities of elements such as attire, atmosphere, culture/identity, product placement/consumerism, portrayal of men/women/children, instruments, lyrics or any others you can think of.

Pete Rock & C. L. Smooth “They Reminisce Over You”    

50 Cent – P.I.M.P. (Snoop Dogg Remix) ft. Snoop Dogg, G-Unit

The first music video provides a more authentic sense of hip-hop culture, yet is not the kind of clip you would see on MTV’s top hits. The second clip, dramatically varies from traditional elements of hip-hop culture, however is extremely similar to mainstream music videos in this genre.


1. Mitchell, T 2007, 2nd Generation Migrant Expression in Australian Hip-hop, Local Noise,  viewed 22 May 2014, <>

2. Pieters, G 2007, Hip Hop Cultures Identity Crisis, The Star, viewed 22 May 2014, <–hip-hop-culture-s-identity-crisis>


Globalisation and the Media

Globalisation involves two processes that have implications for the media; it is the way technologies are able to conquer global distances – creating a world that seems limitless, and the way that a single economic system, ‘the free market’, now permeates the globe.

“Television… now escorts children across the globe even before they have permission to cross the street” (Meyrowitz, 1985 p238)

The rise of mass television has allowed millions to regularly observe other people and places, anonymously and from afar – blurring the line between public and private behaviours, and weakening the link between physical location and access to social experience. In this sense, television has contributed to the reshaping of social roles regarding age, gender and authority. Television experience also prompts the prevalent use of participatory media, such as the interaction on social networking sites (Meyrowitz, 2009). A journal article by Jinna Tay and Graeme Turner (2008) investigate how the convergence of media platforms is challenging conventional perceptions of how the mass media function. Television is no longer considered a single entity working in the social, political and cultural aspects of media. New media is recontextualising the way we experience television – since the likes of major rating successes such as Big Brother, which incorporated multi-platformed and multimedia events, it is evident that television is no longer a stand-alone medium.

EG. BigBrother Germany Facebook Voting App – adapting to communication technologies and evolving the TV industry to multiple platforms – leading to new show formats (just as Televoting did in the 90s).   

In Australia, television advertising is plummeting as online advertising booms. As a result, market-specific variations are increasing. Television in the 21st century has had to adapt to a demanding, competitive and technologically convergent environment by targeting consumer groups. Broadcasters utilise reality television programs, as they are suitable for cross-media interactivity – taking advantage of modern communication technologies, in turn allowing industries to experiment with younger demographics. This reformation of television challenges authoritarian-style governments across the globe, as they struggle to maintain control, as there is no longer a single foundation to provide a basis for national conversation (Tay & Turner, 2008).


1. Metzger, MCM 2011, Endemol’s BigBrother launches voting via Facebook Credits, Monty’s Blog, weblog post, 6 july, viewed 16 May 2014,<;

2. Meyrowitz, J 2009, We Liked to Watch: Television as Progenitor of the Surveillance Society, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 625, pp. 32-48.

3. Meyrowitz, J 1985, No sense of place: the impact of electronic media on social behaviour, Oxford University Press, New York

4. Tay, J & Turner, G 2008, What is Television: Comparing Media Systems in the Post-broadcast Era, Media International Australia, no. 126, pp71-81

Race & Ethnicity in Grand Theft Auto

Videogames (specifically urban/street games) create cross-cultural learning experiences, particularly for young people, growing up in a media-saturated environment. Different kinds of learning take place in videogames, which is said to influence young people’s perceptions of race, gender and ethnicity. The shift to a more digitalised and interactive culture is problematic in this sense because youth can now actively participate, rather than passively internalise discourses of race and gender, say, from a TV program (Everett & Watkins, 2008, pp141-142; Leonard, 2003, pp1-2).

‘No title epitomises urban/street gaming more problematically than the GTA franchise.’
(Everett & Watkins, 2008, p150)

The designs of urban/street games have very aesthetic and narrative properties. Developers bring in highly skilled designers to create a world that imitates popular perceptions of urban culture. For example, the radio in GTA is so popular because developers have called upon celebrity hip-hop producers, performers and radio personalities to voice the DJ’s on many of the stations. Artists and producers also help to select music for the game that will evoke ethos and energy of urban or “ghetto” life (Everett & Watkins, 2008, pp146-148). The setting is one of the vital aspects of how learning takes place in videogames. It teaches dominant attitudes and assumptions about race and gender; as they draw heavily from discourses that already circulate in mainstream media. These messages are then intensified through the appeal of interactive game play, and are achieved by providing graphically real and culturally authentic environments. Unlike school, where youth are more used to the system of “telling” and “doing”, gaming provides an immersive experience in an active environment rather than passive. Users work their way through the game via trial and error, engaging and exploring in the actual context of practice. Where television TELLS gender and racial narratives, videogames allow for active participation – performing and reproducing socially prescribed notions of gender and race through a dynamic process (Everett & Watkins, 2008, pp142-149; Leonard, 2003, p3).

This paves a way for how gamers, particularly the young, are developing their knowledge and familiarity with popular views of urban culture. Spatial environment becomes a culturally specific location that animates ideas of race, class and gender. It works ideologically to underpin notions of urban communities as deviant and dangerous. In Grand Theft Auto, the atmosphere has characteristics of socially and economically marginalised communities; graffiti-covered buildings, dilapidated housing, trash-filled streets, and background characters typically associated in petty crimes, drug deals and prostitution (Everett & Watkins, 2008, pp145-146).

steretype gtaA gamers response to choosing a character in Grand Theft Auto V

Designing characters in earlier videogames was restricted by technology. Now, they are able to easily portray racial characteristics through skin colour, body language and voice. However, even though videogame designers have the ability now with upgraded software and technology, depictions of gender and race are still very narrow and stereotypical. For example, the GTA series is populated by predominantly black and Latino based characters associated with crime, enhancing hegemonic views of black masculinity (Everett & Watkins, 2008, pp143-144; Leonard, 2003, pp5-6).

While it’s easy to say that videogames don’t force people to go out and imitate direct actions of violence and crime, it’s not so easy to make that judgement with the inherent depictions of racial ideologies. Because these representations are everywhere in the media, it’s not fair to say that videogames are responsible for constructing racial and gender stereotypes. While they are present, and aren’t probably helping… it’s still not justifiable to say that they are to blame.


Everett, A & Watkins, C 2008, “The Power of Play: The Portrayal and Performance of Race in Video Games.”, The Ecology of Games: Connecting Youth, Games, and Learning, Cambridge, MIT Press, pp141-164.

Leonard, D 2003, ““Live in Your World, Play in Ours”: Race, Video Games, and Consuming the Other”, Studies in Media & Information Literacy Education, vol. 3, no. 4, pp1–9, viewed 26 March 2014            <>


Gender & the Media

Ideologies of gender and body image are consistently presented to the public in an idealised manner. The media propagates these philosophies to support consumerism and maintain social order. We live in an image-based society, where sexual identity of an individual is skewed by messages represented in advertising, films, music, television, magazines etc. (Dines, 2011; Kinnick, 2007, pp9-15). Conflict theory, known as Marxism, was developed in the 19th century by anarchist Karl Marx, and explores how media attempts to control the behaviour of other classes in society to modify status quo. A conflict perspective is where the media reflects the needs and interests of a ruling class. The media somewhat achieves this by creating fear and anxiety on unimportant issues (dealing with social values) to distract us from big issues (McLelland, 2012).

A significant value that is consistently shaped and reshaped by the media is gender socialisation. The media creates ideological images of gender, which humans adapt to and learn the ‘appropriate’ ways of being masculine or feminine in society. Ultimately, the media sends messages that seem idealistic but in reality it is an assumed expectation of how an individual should look and behave. Hyper-sexualised advertisements first appeared in the 1990s, and have since perpetrated the continuous stream of sexualised content we are exposed to today. 90s sony woman ad Popular culture places pressure on males about masculinity by often portraying them as dominating and powerful, and imposes a false realism of how women should act, look and be treated. In 2007, a Dolce & Gabbana print advertisement caused a lot of controversy as it connotes gender stereotypes and sexual objectification. The positioning of models is what disturbed consumers the most – a man is physically restraining a woman while other men watch – alluding to a “gang rape” scene. D&G’s edgy attempt at marketing caused the ad to be banned, first in Spain and then Italy. Some consumers may not think much of this ad, as the media consistently desensitises society by producing sexualised content; sometimes subtly, though it is apparent in this example. dg_girl_down ‘People who have not been raped do not understand the depths of the horror… Imagery such as this is inappropriate because it may call to mind someone’s past and put them into a bad place mentally. It’s awful. Certainly doesn’t make me want to buy anything…’ (Rebekah, 2007)

This example reaffirms the constructed ideology of gender stereotypes that the media transmits. It illustrates the importance of male dominance and masculinity when with a woman. Men should be tall, tanned and buff whilst women should be petite and sexy. We now live in a sexist culture where women are subordinated and commodified (Dines, 2011). Nevertheless, masculinity is also damaging to sexual identity. It isolates men emotionally by removing endorsed feelings of vulnerability and pain, and from participating in nurturing and caring relationships. As a result of gender stereotypes, men and women judge and compare themselves to others, by their aesthetic, sexual and economic performance (Itzen, 1992, p63).


Dines, G 2011. ‘How Porn Has Hijacked Our Sexuality’, ABC Big Ideas (12 July), accessed 5 May 2014, <;

Felix, S, 2012, 18 Ads That Changed How We Think About Women, Business Insider Australia, viewed 3 May 2014, <;

Hall, S, 2007, Dolce & Gabbana Ad: Cartoonish Edginess or Gang Rape?, AdRANTS, viewed 3 May 2014, <;

Itzen, C 1992, ‘Pornography and the social construction of sexual inequality’, Pornography: Women violence and civil liberties, Oxford, OUP, pp57 – 75

Kinnick, K 2007. ‘Pushing the Envelope: The Role of the Mass Media in the Mainstreaming of Pornography’, in Hall, A & Bishop, M (eds.), Pop-Porn: Pornography in American Culture, Conneticut, Praeger, pp7 – 26

McLelland, M 2012, SOC104, Theoretical Approaches, lecture notes, accessed 2 August 2012, eLearning@UOW

Rebekah, 2007, Dolce & Gabbana Ad: Cartoonish Edginess or Gang Rape?, webpage comment, AdRANTS, viewed 3 May 2014, <>    

A Response to the Changing Structure of Journalism

This week I watched two intriguing videos online. One was a discussion between New York Times columnist David Carr and Bloomberg Media Chairman Andrew Lack, the other was a TED Talk presented by author, journalist and media critic Tom Rosentiel. Both videos explored issues surrounding digital technologies, journalism and media.

I consider myself lucky, belonging to a demographic that has had the privilege of witnessing (and being a part of) this massive, global transition to online media – at such a fragile time of mental and physical growth. These overwhelming, crazy changes to information and communication technologies came about at a curious time of my adolescence. Between the ages of 11-13 I was only just beginning to find my place, attempting to identify myself in this world. I enjoyed reading and writing, and the idea of being a journalist interested me (although I did not quite understand the role of journalism back then). I remember picking up a popular teenage girls’ magazine, Girlfriend. I knew that journalists produced the content, so I would flick through not only recreationally, but also for a sense of guidance I suppose. What struck me, and made me never pick up one of these magazines again, was a giant, bold phrase on the front cover, accompanied with an unblemished, beautiful woman, “SKIPPING BREAKFAST MAKES YOU SKINNY”. This was a confusing message for me, because I had never thought about the number on the scales at this age. In addition, it contradicted my previous knowledge (from school and family) of breakfast being the most important meal of the day. So I was at a crossroad – believe these words and images; from a source I have no personal connection with, or ditch it and vow never to purchase the magazine again. I chose the latter. Looking back, that title still rubs me the wrong way. It also tainted my perception of commercial journalists, and my desire to be one. To think that there was a whole article inside a magazine targeted at teenage girls, blatantly attempting to convince them to compensate a healthy diet for an idealistic reality (a body which most young girls are not aware they wanted). This is one of the only magazines I ever picked up when I was younger, so I dread to think how many inappropriate articles were falsely educating the minds of girls.

I digress; this long-winded story did have a point. I simply wanted to express my gratitude and appreciation for the modern structure that journalism is steering towards today, thanks to the participation of consumers. No more authoritarian, one-way process between journalist and audience. I wanted to use my experience with the magazine to demonstrate some of the limitations in traditional media forms. As I stated, my only two options were to continue reading and purchasing those magazines, just ‘cause that’s all that was available to me at the time… or ditch it and find something else. Now, in 2014, if an organisation were to publish that exact headline, I can only imagine the stir it would cause online; aggressive posts on their Facebook profile, abusive mentions on their Twitter page, and comments from people around the world who work in nutrition and health, all putting their two cents in.

When I come across material that explores journalistic practice in a digital age, there is one recurring thought that stays with me, to try make sense of it all. I think of journalism as a system – it involves ethics, hierarchy and provides a service. Much like a democratic government. We elect our government. In a sense, this same logic is being applied to the structure journalism. For so long journalists have provided citizens with a service, without actually engaging them. Audiences and journalists can now work together to create a system that utilises tools from both parties, ultimately (hopefully) aiming to achieve a consistent, convenient, trustworthy and reliable industry.

Reference List:

Rosenstiel, T 2013, The Future of Journalism, TED X online video, YouTube, accessed 17 April 2014 <;

bu, 2014, NYT’s David Carr on the Future of Journalism, online video, YouTube, accessed 17 April 2014, <;


Aesthetic Journalism & Public Media Spaces

‘This society is involved in a constant search for strategies of authenticity as a source of real experience and assessment for the quality of existence.’
– Alfredo Cramerotti, 2011, p64

Public media spaces provide valuable opportunities to gain insight and experience cultural practices of civilisation. These spaces are all around us – museums, galleries as well as street art and installations. An example would be Sydney’s annual ‘Vivid festival of light, music and ideas’. Vivid Sydney takes place over 18 days between late May and early June, and is an inspiring, accessible media space. The city transforms into a canvas of creativity and innovation, consisting of outdoor installations, performances and illuminating iconic architecture to generate an immersive experience.

vivid 2013 A photo I took at Vivid Sydney 2013. Families engaging with the flashing neon lit seesaws.

Aesthetic representations are effective tools to communicate a message or meaning. Artists present content in unique ways, and every respondent encounters them differently; each experience comes with existing cultural knowledge, which is then used to critically reflect and build on the images presented. The result is a one-of-a-kind cognitive process that can modify fabricated perceptions of society and self-identity.

This publication by Alfredo Cramerotti (2011) explores the influence and progression of Aesthetic Journalism. In medieval times, artistic imagery was commonly used in religious practice as a tool to educate the masses about morality and maintain control. Traditionally, artists represented theoretical knowledge and practical realisations, often predicting images of the future. Post WWII, westernisation prompted a new form of aesthetics, facilitating more contemporary approaches to art. Aesthetic culture transformed into an instrument to investigate the living. Themes surrounding capitalism, consumerism and pop-culture began to blur the boundaries between art and life, paving the way for artistic representations to mirror society’s structures and mass media aesthetics.

Journalistic art entertains, informs and constitutes change. Modernist art was classed as elitist and considered “high culture” as it conveyed complex layers of meaning. Andy Warhol is an example of a famous pop icon of the 20th century, who challenged modernism and cultural perceptions of how art should be displayed. Warhol presented commercialism of culture through the commodification of himself and his works by implementing techniques such as repetition, to celebrate consumer culture unifying citizens. By using consumerism as a subject, Warhol shattered modernist stereotypes, through the transmission of consumer art into high art.

warhol soup

Campbell’s Soup Cans – Andy Warhol 1962

Warhol replicates the cans to symbolise American culture, in a world dominated by mass production and consumerism. The repetition suggests that lack of variety in consumer images dulls the senses and emotions. Viewers are saturated with the same image until it gradually loses significance, corresponding to the discourse of media saturation (Indiana, 2010, p84-86; Zainal Abidin, 2013).

Reference List:

Cramerotti, A 2011, ‘What is Aesthetic Journalism’, in A Cramerotti (ed.), Aesthetic Journalism: How to Inform Without Informing, Intellect, London.

Indiana, G 2010, Andy Warhol and the Can that Sold the World, Basic Books, US.

Zainal Abidin, ND 2013, ‘Andy Warhol and Consumerism’, Slideshare, Slideshow, 31 January, viewed 10 April 2014, <;

The Future of Journalism

The line between conventional journalists and their audiences seems to be blurring. Participatory culture has added a whole new dimension to journalism and the way information circulates, challenging traditional boundaries and definitions of professional institutions. Docile journalists are attached to the time-honoured social functions within these institutions, by having the “gatekeeper of information” status and authority. The what, when and how of transmitting news to the public, has until recently always been maintained and enforced by conventional routines. Access/observation, selection/filtering, processing/editing, distribution and interpretation of content, are the five routines of communication that are no longer restricted by a gatekeeper (Domingo et. al., 2008, p326).

Audiences are now involved in the circulation of news more than ever before, purely due to the fact that we’ve been provided with the ability to do so. Hello modern technology. Major news corporations are in the midst of a power-struggle, between their traditional practices and the abundance of social networking platforms. This ubiquitous battle, in my opinion, can only mean one thing – the public WANT to be able to participate, and finally, they can. This doesn’t have to mean a great shift in control, but an opportunity to consider the varying perspectives, ideas and reflections of society. How can one decipher exactly what, when and how the public want to know something, without involving them in the process? Contemporary critics base their argument surrounding this precise notion. Journalist Risto Kunelius believes that news should be more like a conversation rather than a lecture (2001). Since the emergence of social networks, many traditional institutions have resisted complying with this participatory culture. However this is slowly changing, with corporations recognising the potential of audience interaction, they are beginning to utilise participatory methods in some ways. Stemming from the popularity of talk shows and community-engaging program formats, more and more newsrooms are incorporating social media platforms such as Twitter. Informative television programs, such as ABC’s Q&A and SBS Insight, function more like a discussion. While the information and stories remain mediated, there is still a sense of authenticity because of the conversation-like structure. Online, a majority of institutions haven’t fully utilised the tools of citizen media, however, have enabled some features within their news stories including ranking, sharing, commenting, and forum threads. While this is still restrictive to exactly what is being reported, it aims to encourage collective discussions and criticisms in a controlled environment (Domingo et. al., 2008, p334).

This video is a collaboration of television programs, events, and news desks that are using social media (Twitter) to create an ongoing relationship with viewers.




Domingo, D, Quandt, T, Heinonen, A, Paulussen, S, Singer, JB & Vujnovic, M 2008, ‘PARTICIPATORY JOURNALISM PRACTICES IN THE MEDIA AND BEYOND: An international comparative study of initiatives in online newspapers’, Journalism Practice, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 326-342.

Kunelius, R 2001, ‘Conversation: a metaphor and a method for better journalism?’, Journalism Studies, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 31-54.

Twitter, 2011, The Best of Twitter TV, online video, 2 May, YouTube, viewed 3 April 2014 <>

The Public Sphere of Imagination

When I was younger, recess and lunch in the school playground was a crucial space, where discussions of canteen chicken nuggets, annoying teachers and the latest toys occurred. Communication is part of human nature. It is instinctual; we want to openly talk about our interests and concerns, and it’s a good feeling when we share common views with someone (Hewett, 2011, p3). As we progress through life, humans are drawn to a space where one can discuss collective social interests; this has come to be known as the modern day Public Sphere. In the 18th century, middle-class men encountered face-to-face social and political squabbles in local salons and coffee houses. Philosopher Jürgen Habermas described the Public Sphere as ‘a network for communicating information and points of view’ (1996). In the 21st Century, when we see the words “network” and “communication” we don’t tend to grab our newspapers and head down to the local café to have lengthy debates with our neighbours. The modern day Public Sphere(s) is tucked into our pockets, or sitting on your desk. Humans can now digitally access what seems like an infinite number of platforms, to receive, respond and circulate information.

Everyday we consume mediated images and expectations of life, through popular media discourses presented in entertainment programs. This epitomises the notion of a Cultural Public Sphere, where aesthetic and emotional modes of communication are articulated affectively (McGuigan, 2005, p435). While traditional journalistic institutions distract audiences from “serious” cultural concerns, viewers begin to respond and reflect on personal, public and political interests through social networking platforms. TV shows such as ABC’s Q&A become agents of critical intervention in the mainstream media, by providing public debate. The program allows viewers to hashtag and tweet in real-time, highlighting the value of independent criticism about widespread dissent and ideologies in the Public Sphere (McGuigan, 2005, p440).

asylum qanda



#qanda tweets acting as commentary about issues being raised.

With anybody being able to participate in The Public Sphere, modern anxieties arise over the deterioration of balanced discourse about public affairs. Some critics argue that mass media has expanded the Public Sphere; while others state that it has transformed the nature of publicness all together (Munday & Chandler, 2011).


Habermas, J 1996, Between facts and norms: Contributions to a discourse theory of law and democracy,MIT Press, Cambridge

Hewett, D 2011, The Nature of Human Communication, Sage Publications, pp.3-8

McGuigan, J 2005, ‘The Cultural Public Sphere’, Cultural Studies, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 427–443

Munday, R & Chandler, D 2011, ‘Public and Private Spheres’, Dictionary of Media and Communication, Oxford University Press

Informed Audiences RE: Wikileaks

‘You can’t publish a paper on physics without the full experimental data and results; that should be the standard in journalism.’ (Jualian Assange, 2010)

Journalists are expected to abide by a code of ethics in the distribution of content, particularly the notion of objectivity. Where absolute neutral transmission of objective reality can be defined as impossible, in a journalistic sense, objectivity is a method used to test interpretations for bias or inaccuracies. This stance is alike to the way scientists test their hypotheses about phenomena . Julian Assange, self-labeled “information acitivist”, believes that media convergence has blurred the traditional philosophies of accurate and factual reporting, stating that the truth should always be presented unvarnished and verifiable. Assange launches Wikileaks, a non-profit website in 2006, aiming to disseminate sensitive material  for the public to use as a tool to make intelligent and informed decisions. For audiences, it is just as important to be objective when receiving information. Traditional and digital forms of journalism have pros and cons with regard to ethical reporting. Both vary in the delivery of material yet the significance lies within you as the reader. Advantages of receiving information online are that you have the ability to re-read, follow through links and images, as well as crosscheck information at your own pace (click-click-click). This idea was one of the driving forces for Wikileaks, and when Assange released the collateral murder video, in its pure and unpolished state, it was confronting for many viewers. As a result it assisted to open the eyes of the public and their perception of war, while causing a moral panic among government and media agencies.

Nonetheless, consuming content today is a double-edged sword. For example, citizen journalism means that anyone can post freely online (yay) however the information you’re reading may not be accurate. An online author often doesn’t have any academic credentials and may not have used reliable sources (nay). This element of the digital economy is what poses ethical concerns of journalistic integrity. Audiences must understand the significance of factual and balanced news reporting while also being objective and critical.

pressImage Source

We are all constantly consuming information, sometimes subconsciously. It is worthwhile to note when you’re watching the news or reading the paper, to keep in mind that the Fourth Estate enforce rigorous editing and presentation practices. This process may skew the representation of whole stories, individuals and groups of people, ultimately influencing the attitudes of consumers.